Pears-

I'm very excited to announce that some of these varieties of pears are now available for sale in the Fall of 2010. I have selected these varieties because many are unusual and long lost because they werent suitable for mass marketing. I am forever in search of the forgotten fruit that was left behind only because it didnt meet the criteria of toughness and flawless cosmetics. There are countless varieties that are homely, small, russetted or thin skinned that are of exceptional eating and culinary quality for the home grower and the local markets. Varieties that were used traditionally for the tradition of perry making (pear cider), and varieties that were early, disease resistant, long storage, or ancient were of particular interest. In the spirit of fruit exploring it has been such an amazing project to find these varieties and bring them to our community. I'm taking part in the 2nd American Revolution that is the people taking back our food. (We should be on our 6th or 7th revolution according to Jefferson.) This genetic material was shared in the spirit of research, and who ever purchases any of these are encourage to keep me posted on how they perform so we can select successful varieties that bring abundance and variety to our region for future generations. Please consider joining our local fruit explorers club for fruit amateur fruit enthusiasts. Go to: Buncombefruitnuts@googlegroups.com

The list is long, but in alphabetical order so it should be easy to scroll down to the ones you are interested in. This is the complete list of the varieties I’m working with and can custom graft any that aren’t in this year’s inventory list

 

Arganche-
(Klementinka, Mustafabey, Zaharoasa de Vara). -A small, early ripening pear from Macedonia. Introduced to U.S. from Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1960. Fruit: small (about 50 g) like Seckel, pyriform, skin yellow with red blush and norusset; flesh fine-textured, sweet, juicy, firm; ripe early, about 16 July in western Oregon. Tree: naturally compact due to relatively short internodes, abundant fruiting spurs, consistently productive, resistant to scab. Apparently identical to Mustafabey from Turkey, Zaharoasa de Vara from Romania, and Klementinka from Bulgaria. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Atlantic Queen-
 Imported to the US approx. 30 years ago, seems immune to fire blight in Eastern US. Excellent fruit, prolific

Ayer-
See plate 52 in USDA Yearbook for 1911. Originated as a chance seedling on the farm of O.H. Ayer, Sibly, Kansas, 1880. Fruit medium in size, resembling White Doyenne in form and coloration. Flesh fairly fine, buttery, moderately juicy. Mild, pleasing flavor but lacks distinctive dessert quality characteristics. Earlier than Bartlett in season. Tree moderately vigorous, reasonably productive, of fair resistance to fire blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957.

Barland
An early-mid season perry pear with high acids and tannins. Origin: Traditional English cultivar, grown since before 1674. The original tree grew in the parish of Bosbury, Hereford, England and was estimated to be 200 years old in 1830. Fruit: Small, turbinate or round, 31-52 mm. long, 38-51 mm. diam.; stem slender, 25-32 mm., often fleshy where attached to fruit; no stem basin or calyx basin; calyx open. Skin dull green or yellow with gray russet at stem and calyx ends,lenticels numerous but inconspicuous. Flesh has some stone cells around core. Ripens late, September to early October in England s West Midlands, late September in western Oregon. Tree: Long lived, becoming large and tall; possibly a triploid; precocious bearing; the flowers are said to have a more pleasant fragrance than most pears; fruit scab may be severe. Perry: Fruit milled up to three days after harvest; juice acidity 0.92, tannins 0.26, specific gravity 1.058 for fruit from old trees, lower from young trees; produces a high acid, moderate tannin, fruity vintage of moderate quality. Barland perry has been reputed since the seventeenth century to have medicinal value in treating kidney disorders. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Much planted in Herefordshire and the adjoining counties. The trees have acquired an extrordinary size and height, and they are much distinguished by the beauty of their form and foliage. The largest orchards of this variety are now to be found in the parishes of Dymock, in Gloucestershire, and Newland, in Worcestershire. Very few farms on the eastern side of Herfordshire are without Barland pear trees, showing how extensively this favourite variety was at one time cultivated. Evelyn several times mentions the Barland Pear, 'and as no trees of this variety,' says Mr. Knight, 'are found in decay from age, in favourable soils, it must be concluded that the identical trees which were growing when Evelyn wrote, still remain in health and vigour. The specific gravity of the juice is 1.070.'

The fruit, Evelyn describes as 'of such insufferable taste, that hungry swine will not smell to it, or if hunger tempts them to taste, at first crash, they shake it out of their mouths:' but of the perry he speaks much more favorably. 'There is a Pear in Bosberry and that neighbourhood, which yields the liquor richer the second year than the first, and so, by my experience, very much amended the third year.' Another writer says: 'It hath many of the masculine Qualities of Cyder. It is quick, strong, and heady, high coloured, and retaineth a good vigour... many years before it declineth... As it approacheth to the Apple Cyder in Colour, Strength and excellence in Durance, so the bloom cometh forth of a damask Rose Colour, like Apples not like other Pears.' (Herfordshire Orchards, by J. Beale, 1760). -- Robert Hogg. 1886. The Apple & Pear as Vintage Fruits.

Beurre Gris-
Leroy gives 29 synonyms for this variety. Listed by Ragan as 'Brown'. Must not be confused with 'Beurre Gris d'Hiver Nouveau' or with 'Beurre Gris d'Ete' which are distinct varieties. A very old pear, the origin of which is lost in antiquity. Mentioned by Olivier de Serres in 1651 and by C. Millet in 1652. Listed by Rea as being grown in England in 1655 under the name of 'Boeure de Roy'. Fruit medium in size, roundish or bergamot in form. Skin greenish-yellow, sometimes blushed, occasionally russeted, fairly attractive. Flesh fine, melting, juicy. Acidulous, vinous flavor, high in dessert quality except for grit at the center. Tree resembles that of Beurre Hardy in form and foliage chacteristics. Quite susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957.

Brown. Origin France. Very highly esteemed, especially in France. Synonyms: Amboise, Ambroise, l'Amboise, Badham's, Beurre Brown, Beurre Butter, Beurre d'Ambleuse, Beurre d'Amboise, Beurre de Caen, Beurre d'Isambert, Beurre d'Or, Beurre de Treveuren, Beurre Doie (of the French), Beurre Doree, Beurre du Roi, Beurre Gris, Beurre Gris d'Automne, Beurre Isambert, Beurre of Duh, Beurre Rouge, Beurre Rousse, Beurre Roux, BeurreBeurre Vert, Brown Beurre, Brown Butter, Eisenbart, Gisambert, Golden Beurre, Gray Beurre, Gray Butter, Green Butter, Grey Beurre, Gris, Isambert, Isambert le Bon, Isambert of Normandy, La Beurre, Poire d'Amboise, Red Beurre, Red Butter, Rouge, True Golden Beurre. -- W.H.Ragan, Nomenclature of the Pear, 1908.

Brown Beurre. (of various French gardens: Beurre Gris, Beurre Rouge, Beurre d'or, Beurre Doree, Beurre d'Amboise, Beurre d'Ambleuse, Beurre du Roi, Poire d'Amboise, Isambert, Isambert le Bon). The Brown Beurre, almost too well known to need description, was for a long time, considered the prince of pears in France, its native country, and for those who are partial to the high vinous flavour - a rich mingling of sweet and acid - it has still, few competitors. It is, however, quite variable in different soils, and its variety of appearance in different gardens, has given rise to the many names, gray, brown, red and golden, under which it is known. Kenrick calls it 'an outcast,' but our readers will pardon our dissent from this opinion, while we have the fact in mind, of its general excellence in this region; and especially that of a noble tree, now in view from the library where we write, which is in luxuriant vigour, and gives us, annually, from five to eight bushels of superb fruit. The truth is, this pear is rather tender for New England, and requires a warm climate and strong soil. Shoots diverging, dark brown. Fruit large, oblong-obovate, tapering convexly quite to the stalk. Skin slightly rough, yellowish-green, but nearly covered with thin russet, often a little reddish brown on one side. Stalk from one to one a half inches long, stout at its junction with the tree, and thickening obliquely into the fruit Calyx nearly closed in a shallow basin. Flesh greenish white, melting, buttery, extremely juicy, with a rich sub-acid flavour. September. -- A.J. Downing, The fruits and fruit trees of America, 1846.

Beurree Grise or Brown Beurree. Is a large juicy pear, and in some seasons has a fine flavored flesh of great sprightliness - it is of very varying excellence - it is too often acid in the extreme with little flavor; its character changes with the season - when the year is unfavourable the fruit cracks, and the trees lose all their leaves prematurely; when in perfection it is a fine plump fruit, of almost elliptical form, very little diminished towards the stem - resembling the Beuree in shape; the skin is green with clouds of black, the flesh white - it ripens in September, and lasts a long time in favourable seasons. -- W. Coxe, A view of the cultivation of fruit trees, 1817.

Beure Hardy- Originated at Boulogne-sur-mer, France, 1830. Fruit medium or larger in size, obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical. Skin usually granular, tender, dull greenish-yellow, often with some russeting, dots numerous and sometimes conspicuous. Flesh somewhat granular, buttery, juicy. Rich, aromatic flavor when properly grown and handled. Inclined to be bitter in taste if picked too early and susceptible to core breakdown if left on the trees too long. Fruit a little too soft to withstand commercial handling. Midseason. Tree of good growth habits, vigorous and productive. Often used as an intermediate trunk stock on quince. Semi-dwarf on quince. Fairly susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957 --

Beurre Hardy is one of the good autumn pears that was originally raised by M. Bonnet of Boulogne-sur-mer, France in 1820. Ten years later M. Jean-Laurent Jamin gave it the name it holds today after he acquired the sample from Bonnet. The cultivar was named after M. Hardy, a Director and Professor of Arboriculture at the Garden of Luxembourg. Between 1840 and 1845, Jamin distributed it among other nurserymen and eventually the cultivar reached the Americas. Virus indicator.

Monolinia fructigena fruit rot resistant in Germany. - Kock, 1911

Butt-
is a widely planted and popular cultivar, remarkable for the length of time the fruit will lie on the ground without rotting. There is a common saying associated with this cultivar--'Gather your Butts one year, mill them the next and drink the year after'. It appears to be the same cultivar locally known as Norton Butt. Its vintage quality is described as being medium to high acid, medium to high tanning Perry; astringent and often fruity; with average to good quality. The juice is usually very slow fermenting. The perry frequently precipitates tannin during storage.

Butt tree is medium to large with narrow-angled crotches and limbs spreading and drooping. The long branches carry conspicuous spur systems.

Its fruit is turbinate or rarely pyriform. It is yellow or greenish yellow, with russet around the stem and eye; lenticels generally small and inconspicuous, but often large and conspicuous on russet, resembling numerous small scab infections.

Capiaumont-
A handsome Flemish pear of fine quality and prolific. Synonyms: Aurore, Beurre Aurore, Beurre Capiaumont, Beurre Coloma, Beurre de Capiaumont, Beurre Spence (of some), Calebasse Vasse, Capiumont, Cassiomont, De La Glaciere. -- W.H. Ragan, Nomenclature of the Pear, 1908.

(of Robert Thompson, 1842). Capiumont (of George Lindley, 1831). A Flemish pear, very fair, and handsomely formed, and such a capital bearer, and so hardy in all soils and seasons, that it is already a very popular orchard and garden fruit. It is always good, sometimes first rate, but when the tree is heavily laden, it is apt to be slightly astringent. It grows freely; branches a little pendant, grayish-yellow. Fruit of medium size, long turbinate, very even, and tapering regularly into the stalk. Skin smooth, clear yellow, with a light cinnamon or cinnamon red cheek, and a few small dots and streaks of russet. Calyx large, with spreading segments, prominently placed, and not at all sunk. Stalk from three-forths to an inch and a half long, curved. Flesh fine grained, buttery, melting, sweet, and when not astringent, of high flavour. September and October. This is quite distinct from the Frederick of Wurtemburgh, an irregular fruit, sometimes called by this name. -- A.J. Downing, The fruits and fruit trees of America, 1846.

Carrick-
Originated in Knoxville, Tennessee, by Brooks D. Drain and Lawson M. Safley, Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1957. Seckel x Garber; cross made in 1934. Fruit: medium to large, 2 3/4 inches in diam.; oblong pyriform; calyx open, large; skin thickness medium, tender, yellow, very russeted, slightly blushed; dots many, russeted; core small; flesh white, tinged with yellow, firm, tender, juicy, crisp; flavor sweet-subacid, sprightly, good; ripens inSeptember. Tree: large; vigorous; spreading; some resistance to fire blight. Named in honor of the Reverend Samuel Carrick, President of the University of Tennessee, 1794 to 1809. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Chapin- Originated at Boulogne-sur-mer, France, 1830. Fruit medium or larger in size, obtuse-pyriform, symmetrical. Skin usually granular, tender, dull greenish-yellow, often with some russeting, dots numerous and sometimes conspicuous. Flesh somewhat granular, buttery, juicy. Rich, aromatic flavor when properly grown and handled. Inclined to be bitter in taste if picked too early and susceptible to core breakdown if left on the trees too long. Fruit a little too soft to withstand commercial handling. Midseason. Tree of good growth habits, vigorous and productive. Often used as an intermediate trunk stock on quince. Semi-dwarf on quince. Fairly susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957 --

Beurre Hardy is one of the good autumn pears that was originally raised by M. Bonnet of Boulogne-sur-mer, France in 1820. Ten years later M. Jean-Laurent Jamin gave it the name it holds today after he acquired the sample from Bonnet. The cultivar was named after M. Hardy, a Director and Professor of Arboriculture at the Garden of Luxembourg. Between 1840 and 1845, Jamin distributed it among other nurserymen and eventually the cultivar reached the Americas. Virus indicator.

Monolinia fructigena fruit rot resistant in Germany. - Kock, 1911

'Citron de Carmes'-
Nomenclature of this variety is somewhat confused. Hedrick states that it has been known by no less than 50 different names. In France and England its official name is Citron de Carmes, but in America it has generally been recognized as Madeleine. Origin uncertain. Cultivated by Le Lectier in France as early as 1628. Fairly wide distribution in United States about 1830. Added to APS catalog list in 1848. Fruit small in size, roundish-obtuse-pyriform. Skin tender, fairly smoth, dull green in color, with numerous small dots. Flesh tinged with yellow, fine, melting, very juicy. Sweet, rich, vinous flavor. Among the earliest in season. Short-lived, subject to core breakdown if left on trees too long. Too tender to withstand shipping. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading in habit, grayish green in foliage, productive. Fairly susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957.

Madeleine. Origin France? Ripens at the feast of St. Madeleine and first cultivated by the Carmelite Monks. Synonyms: Citron de Carmes, Citron des Carmes, Early Chaumontelle, Early Chaumontel (incorrectly), Early Madelaine, Early Rose Angle, Green Chisel (incorrectly), Grune Magdalena, Grune Sommer, Grune Sommer Magdalena, Hasting pear, Madeleine au Citron des Carmes, Madeline, Magdalen, Magdaleine, Magdelen, Poire Hativeau, Sainte Madelaine. -- W.H. Ragan, Nomenclature of the Pear, 1908.

Madeleine, or Citron des Carmes (of John Lindley, 1828; Robert Thompson, 1842). Madeleine (of Louis Noisette, 1839), Citron des Carmes (of Duhamel, 1768), Magdelen, Green Chisel (incorrectly), Early Chaumontelle (incorrectly). The Madeleine is one of the most refreshing and excellent of the early pears; indeed, as yet, much the best at the time of its ripening - before the Bloodgood. It takes its name from its being in perfection, in France, at the feast of St. Madeleine. Citron des Carmes comes from its being first cultivated by the Carmelite monks. It is much the finest early French variety, and deserves a place in all collections. The tree is fruitful and vigorous, with long erect olive-coloured branches. Fruit of medium size, obovate, but tapering gradually to the stalk. Stalk long and slender, often nearly two inches, set on the side of a small swelling. Skin smooth, pale yellowish-green, (very rarely, with a little brownish blush and russet specks around the stalk.) Calyx small, in a very shallow, furrowed basin. Flesh wihte, juicy, melting, with a sweet and delicate flavour, slightly perfuned. Middle and last of July. -- A.J. Downing, The fruits and fruit trees of America, 1846.

Citron de Carmes. This is a very fine early fruit - the size is small, not much larger than the Hativeau - the skin green, the flesh juicy, buttery, and highly flavored - the taste, when not too ripe, sugary. This pear Mr. Prince calls the early Chaumontel; it is one of the finest fruits of the season. -- W. Coxe, A view of the cultivation of fruit trees, 1817.

Doyenne de comice-
 From the first seed bed in the fruit garden of Comice Horticole, Angers, Department of Maine-et-Loire, France. First fruited in 1849. Introduced into America, 1850. First recommended for general cultivation by A.P.S. in 1862. Fruit medium to large, sometimes very large, obovate-obtuse-pyriform. Skin fairly thick, granular, susceptible to blemishes, sometimes russeted, greenish-yellow in color, often blushed. Flesh very fine, melting, extremely juicy, quite free of grit. Sweet, rich, aromatic, vinous flavor. Regarded by many as the standard of dessert quality smong pears. Midseason. Fruit inclined to bruise easily in the ripe stage. Tree large, stately, vigorous, but slow in coming into bearing. Semi-dwarf on quince, moderately susceptibl to fire blight. Doyenne du comice is a temperamental variety which reaches perfection only under limited conditions of soil, climate, and location. - H. Hartman, Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 1957
Comice is marketed by Harry and David in southern Oregon under the trademark name 'Royal Riviera'.

Doyenne gris-
Origin attributed to the garden of the Chartreux Monastery, Paris, France, about the middle of the 18th century. Apparently a russet sport of White Doyenne. Fruit medium in size and gobular in form as in White Doyenne. Skin smooth, deep gold in color, uniformly overlaid with fine 'cinnamon' russet, very attractive, flesh white, buttery, tender, extremely juicy. Sweet, spicy flavor, equal to Bosc in dessert quality. Keeps till about March 1 in cold storage. Has good shelf life and remains free of friction bruises. Tree vigorous, strong, productive, and willowy in habit. Moderately susceptible to blight. One of the most promising varieties in the collection.

'Duchesse d'Angouleme'—
LATE RIPE, FIRE BLIGHT RESISTANT, QUINCE COMPATIBLE
Found as a chance seedling near Maine-et-Loire, France. First propagated by M. Audusson about 1808 at Angers, France. First fruited in America in 1830. Added to the APS catalog list in 1862. Fruit medium or above in size, oblong-obovate-pyriform. Skin dull, greenish-yellow in color, sometimes netted with russet, numerous russet dots. Flesh becoming buttery at maturity but not melting, somewhat granular, moderately juicy. Sweet, fairly pleasing in flavor but not outstanding in dessert quality. Early midseason. Tree vigorous, stately, productive, hardy, and healthy. One of the best in the pear kingdom. Moderately resistant to blight. Semi-dwarf on quince. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957.

The original tree of this cultivar grew in a garden near Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France. In 1808, after he became intrigued by the beauty and quality of the pear, M. Audusson obtained the right to propagate it. In 1812 he sold the trees under the name Poires des Eparonnais, a name that lasted only eight years. In 1820, M. Audusson sent a basket of the fruit to the Duchesse d' Angouleme and requested that he be given permission to name the pears in her honor. The request was granted. Ten years after it was given a new name, this cultivar amazed a number of people at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society Exhibition when Samuel G. Perkins exhibited a pear that measured 11 3/4 inches long! Apparently, it was the only fruit that grew on his tree that year and it also happened to be the first fruit of the cultivar in America! -- U.P. Hedrick, The Pears of New York, 1921.

'Duchesse de Brissac'-
Raised in a seedbed by Auguste Benoist, Brissac, Maine-et-Loire, France. First fruited in 1861. Fruit above medium in size, generally ovate but quite irregular in form. Skin greenish-yellow in color with some russeting. Flesh fine, buttery or melting, juicy. Sweet aromatic flavor. Rather early in season. Tree fairly vigorous, semi-dwarf on quince. Moderately susceptible to fire blight. - H. Hartman, Oregon Ag. Experiment Station, 1957 Not to be confused with Belle de Brissac, a different variety.

EARLIBRITE-
 is a medium size, attractive, good quality very early ripening pear from Nova Scotia, Canada. A cross of Clapp Favourite x Russet Bartlett made by L.E. Aalders in 1954, selected, named and described by A.D. Crowe and released in 1975. Fruit: fairly uniform, medium size, short pyriform, skin medium greenish yellow when ripe, 75% overload with rich orange red blush, smooth, very attractive. Flesh medium firm, buttery, juicy, soft when ripe, relatively free of grit cells, white to light cream. Stores and ripens well for its season without excessive core breakdown. Flavor mildly aromatic, moderately rich, very good. Stalk medium length and size, often curved, inserted in small cavity. Season very early, about with Lawson. Tree:moderately vigorous, good spur development, upright spreading. The fruit is Earlibrite has outstanding appearance, size and quality for its season. Blight resistance is unknown.

Early Seckel-
Originated in Geneva, N.Y., by U.P. Hedrick, New York State Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1935. Seckel o.p.; seed collected in 1906; first full crop in 1915. Fruit: resembles Seckel but ripens 2 to 3 weeks earlier; keeps in storage longer than Seckel; recommended for local and roadside markets. Tree: round topped, spreading; vigor medium. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

 

Flemish Beauty-
Nomenclature much confused. Leroy gives 35 synonyms and Hedrick states that it has been known by no less than 60 names. A chance seedling found near Alost, East Flanders, Belgium at the beginning of the 19th century. Propagated by Van Mons in 1810 and introduced by him a few years later. Introduced to the U.S. about 1830 and placed on the APS catalog list in 1848. Fruit medium or larger in size, obovate-obtuse-pyriform, quite regular. Skin very smooth, quite free of blemish when well grown, creamy yellow in color, often blushed, attractive. flesh white, firm, becoming buttery at maturity, somewhat granular, juicy. Aromatic with a trace of muskiness, fairly sweet. Good in dessert quality but cannot be rated among the best. A little late than Bartlett in season. Fruit loses ability to ripen if held for long periods in cold storage. After many trials this variety has failed to become a popular commercial sort, in spite of its many good traits. Tree vigorous, of good orchard habits, very productive. Moderately susceptible to blight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station,1957.

This is an early 19th century pear found as a wilding in a woods in Flemish Belgium and originally known as Fondante de Bois (sweetmeat of the woods). It is one of the most delicious of garden pears, hardy and vigorous in tree. Hedrick recommended the fruit for all lovers of choice pears, stating, 'A bright-cheeked Flemish Beauty is as handsome as any pear, and is almost unapproachable in quality; the flavor is nicely balanced between sweetness and sourness, very rich, and has a pleasing muskiness.' ripens in late September and early October. Soon ready to eat. -- Robert Nitschke, Southmeadow Fruit Gardens Catalog, 1976.

Gelbmostler-
A perry pear that is common in Austria and northern Switzerland. The fruit is medium to large, globular; greenish-yellow changing to light yellow, often slightly blushed, speckled with russet dots. Its flesh is yellowis h-white, coarse-grained, juicy, astringent, and over-ripens quickly.
Old type known since the 18th century.

'Gompapa'-
 Brought from Kashmir by Mr. Gompapa. May be an old British introduction. Scions collected from cultivated tree by M. Thompson & D. Brenner on 10 November, 1988 in Pakistan (Northern Areas, Baltistan District) at town of Skardu. Grown at the Department of Agriculture Nursery. Tree is located in a river valley at 2246 m elevation; Latitude 35° 18 min. N, Longitude 75° 38 min. E. Collectors note 'Did not see the fruit, but is said to be very large, 0.5 to 1.0 kg(?). Fruit very firm, can store until March. The longest keeping pear in Baltistan. Grown only in the village of Cuardo (across the river from the nursery) where it was introduced by Mr. Gompapa.' - Collection notebook, 1988.

Grand Champion-
A russet sport of Gorham which originated in the W.F. Shannon orchard in Hood River, Oregon, in 1936. Fruit resembles Gorham in size, and form. Skin very smooth,deep gold in color, overspread with uniform 'cinnamon' russet. Attractive. Very resistant to friction and pressure bruising. Flesh white, fine, juicy, buttery, but somewhat firmer than Gorham in texture. Sweet, rich, vinous flavor, rates among the best in dessert quality. Appears to keep a little longer than Gorham. Tree identical with that of Gorham in vigor, form productivity, and blight susceptibility. Grand Champion appears outstanding among comparatively new pear varieties. -- H. Hartman 1959.
Grand Champion (PI 541197).-Originated in Hood River, Oregon, by W.F. Shannon. Introduced in 1943. Plant patent 585; 18 May 1943; assigned to Stark Brothers Nurseries & Orchards Co., Louisiana, Missouri. A russet sport of Gorham discovered in 1936. Fruit: skin overspread with attractive golden russet, does not show bruises; flesh white, juicy, flavor spicy; dessert quality good; keeping quality good, storing well until late December; ripens about 2 weeks after Bartlett. Tree: blooms late; identical to Gorham. Late blooming, precocious, heavy bearing, susceptible to fire blight. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties, 1950.

The Repository has had inquiries about a 'Shannon' pear that was grown in the Albany, Oregon, area and sold at local farmer markets. Could this be the same as 'Grand Champion'? - J. Postman 2003

'Louise Bonne d'Avranches'-
Listed by Ragan (1908) as Louise. At-least 14 synonyms for this variety are found in the literature. By French pomologists it is Louise Bonne d'Avaranches while British and Americans preferred Louise Bonne de Jersey, as it appears in the American Pomological Society catalog for 1852 (shortened to Louise in 1897.) Not to be confused with Louise Bonne of the French, which is obviously a distinct sort. Full description and color plate in Hedrick (1921). Fruit medium in size, oblong-pyriform, somewhat irregular in shape. Skin smooth, pale yellow in color, often displaying a faint blush, some 'trout' spots,quite free of blemish, attractive. Flesh yellowish-white, somewhat granular. Buttery, juicy, some grit at the center. Sweet, vinous flavor but does not rate among the best in dessert quality. Early midseason. Tree moderate in vigor, upright in habit, sturdy and productive, fairly susceptible to blight. - H. Hartman 1957
Louise has many excellent qualities of fruit and tree, however, not sufficiently above the average to give it a high place in the list of marketable pears. Fruit medium to large, handsome, of excellent quality, and keeps and ships well. It has some preeminence as a pear for the export trade. The trees are not very hardy and somewhat subject to blight. It is very vigorous, productive, and long-lived. In Europe, the fruits are better and the trees more productive when worked on the quince, and, in America the variety is considered one of the best for dwarfing. This pear is a standard for home collections, and found in many commercial orchards in New York. The parent tree was raised from seed about 1780 by M. de Longueval, Avranches, Normandy. Some say the variety was first named Bonne de Longueval; others, that M. de Longueval immediately dedicated the pear to his wife, calling it Bonne Louise de Longueval. Later the Pomological Congress adopted the name of Bonne Louise d'Avaranches, by which it became more generally known. In England it became known as Louise Bonne de Jersey after having presumably found its way there via the Channel Islands. The variety was brought to the United States early in the nineteenth century. In 1852 it was entered in the recommended list of fruits of the American Pomological Society.

Tree large, vigorous, upright, very tall, dense-topped, hardy, productive, long-lived; trunk stocky; branches slightly zigzag, reddish-brown mingled with very dark grayish scarf-skin, with numerous raised lenticels; branchlets slender, long, dark reddish-brown, nearly smooth, glabrous, with few small, slightly raised lenticels. Leaf-buds pointed, semi-free. Leaves 3 1/4 in. long, 1 3/4 in. wide, much curled under at the margins, oval, leathery; apex slightly taper-pointed; margin glandless, finely serrate; petiole 1 1/2 in. long, slender. Flower-buds small, conical or pointed, free; flowers with a disagreeable odor, 1 1/2 in. across, white or tinged with pink along the edge of the petals, averaging 6 buds in a cluster; pedicels 1 1/2 in. long, slender, pubescent, light green. Fruit matures in October; medium to large, 2 7/8 in. long, 2 1/4 in. wide, uniform in size and shape, oblong-pyriform, somewhat irregular, with unequal sides; stem 1 in. long, slender, usually curved; cavity obtuse, very shallow and very narrow, furrowed and wrinkled, often lipped, the flesh folded up around the stem; calyx open, large; lobes broad, acute; basin obtuse, furrowed and uneven; skin granular, smooth; color pale yellow, marked on the exposed cheek with a dull red blush and with sreaks of russet; dots numerous, small, grayish or russet, conspicuous; fruit yellowish-white, somewhat granular, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet and vinous, aromatic, rich; quality very good. Core closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube short, wide, conical; seeds large, wide, long, plumb, acute. -- U.P. Hedrick. 1921. The Pears of New York.

Monolinia fructigena fruit rot resistant in Germany. - Kock, 1911

Luscious-
Originated in Brookings, South Dakota, by Ronald M. Peterson, Agriculture Experiment Station. Introduced in 1973. SD E31 x Ewart; cross made in 1954, selected in 1967, tested as South Dakota 67SIl. Fruit: size medium; pyriform. with broad neck; skin thick, tender, attractive rich yellow with occasional small scattered brown russeted areas, sometimes with a pink blush; flesh light yellow, firm, fine texture, melting, very juicy, flavor similar to Bartlett, quality good; ripens 25 Sept. at Brookings; recommended as a dessert variety. Tree: size medium; broad-oval; vigorous; moderately productive and moderately hardy at Brookings; shows more tolerance to fire blight than most varieties, adapted to parts of the northern Great Plains; glossy, green foliate turns red in the fall. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties
Cold hardy; successfully fruited in Anchorage, Alaska. -- Paul Lariviere, 2006

Magness- Magness (PI 541299).-Originated in Beltsville, Maryland, by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Introduced for trial in 1960. Released in 1968 by Howard J. Brooks. Seckel seedling x Comice; tested as US 3866-E. Fruit: size medium; oval; skin lightly covered with russet, relatively tough, somewhat resistant to insect puncture and decay; flesh soft, very juicy, almost free of grit cells, flavor sweet, highly perfumed, aromatic; ripens at Beltsville about I Sept., being a week later than Bartlett; ripens for prime eating in about 10 days when held at 70F; can be held in cold storage up to 3 months, then ripens with good quality. Tree: very vigorous and spreading for a pear; original tree and first trees propagated from it have some thorns, which may be expected to decrease with additional repropagations; begins bearing at about 6 years; early fruiting mainly on medium long terminals; entirely pollen-sterile, but sets well with all varieties that have been tested; very resistant to fire blight. Recommended for general trial because of high degree of blight resistance and high quality of fruit. Named in honor of John R. Magness who retired in 1959 as chief of the fruit and nut crops section at U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center, in Beltsville, Maryland. --Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

Moonglow- Moonglow (PI 617549).-Originated in Beltsville, Maryland, by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Introduced in 1960. US-Michigan 437 x Roi Charles de Wurtemburg; tested as US 353. Fruit: large; attractive; flesh rather soft, moderately juicy, nearly free of grit cells, flavor mild, subacid, rated good; for processing as well as being of good quality for fresh use; ripens at Beltsville in mid-August, about 7 days earlier than Bartlett; ripens for prime eating and processing in 10 days when held at 70F. Tree: very upright; vigorous; heavily spurred; fruits heavily at an early age; appears to be very resistant to fire blight; flowers contain abundant pollen. Recommended for trail in areas where fire blight is a major problem. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

Monchallard-
Found as a chance seedling by M. Monchallard, at Valeuil, Dordogue, France about 1810. Fruit medium or larger in size, somewhat like Barlett in form but smoother and more symmetrical. Skin clear, pale yellow, some green dots. Often slightly blushed, attractive. Flesh white, very soft or melting, very juicy, free of grit. Sweet, slightly acidulous vinous flavor. rates high in dessert quality but seems too soft to withstand commercial handling. Season about the same as Bartlett. Tree vigorous, productive, good foliage, healthy, semi-dwarf on quince. Fairly susceptible to blight. -- H. Hartman, 1957.

'Normannischen Ciderbirne'-
Description: This Perry pear was named for Normandy, France, where it was originated. In Normandy, France, and in upper Austria this cultivar grows widely. It is excellent for making perry and for distillation. The fruit is small, turbinate, and greenish-yellow covered with cinnamon-russet and ashy-gray dots. The flesh is yellowish-white, somewhat dry and can be sweet but with some sprightliness.

Onward- Raised in 1947 at National Fruit Trials, Wisley, Surrey from Laxton's Superb x Doyenne du Comice and named in 1967. Fruit medium, short pyriform to round conic; skin light green becoming yellow-green, often with pink blush; russeted at the stem and eye. Flesh creamy white, melting, very fine, juicy, sweet rich flavor with balancing acidity. Excellent Quality! A favorite pear of Harold Bjornstad, pomology technician for M.N. Westwood.

Packham's Triumph-
Raised by Sam Packham of Molong, New South Wales about 1897. Now the leading pear in New South Wales and neighboring regions. Fruit medium or large in size, obtuse-pyriform. Surface somewhat rough, particularly on young trees, greenish-yellow or yellow in color, reasonably free of blemishes, fairly attractive. Flesh white, fine, melting, very juicy, quite free of grit. Sweet, vinous flavor, rates among the best in dessert quality. Season late, keeps as long as Beurre d'Anjou in cold storage. Holds up well after ripening. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading in habit, productive, fairly susceptible to pear scab and fire blight. Rapidly gaining ground as a commercial pear variety in this country and abroad. -- H. Hartman 1957.
Packham's Triumph (PI 280405).-Originated in Molong, New South Wales, Australia, by Charles Henry Packham (1832-1909). Introduced at the turn of the century; Introduced into the U.S. as P.I. 43185 in 1916 from Auckland, New Zealand; as P.I. 155945 in 1945 from Buenos Aires, Argentina; as P.I. 157506 in 1946 from Angers, France; and as P.I. 280405 in 1965 from France; first commercial planting in Oregon made in 1950. Uvedale St. Germain x Williams Bon Chretien (Bartlett); the selection from the cross was made in 1896 (1897?). Fruit: large; usually obtuse pyriform; surface slightly uneven; skin thin, lemon-yellow when ripe; flesh texture very fine, very juicy, melting, flavor particularly rich and pleasing; one of best varieties for cool storage, keeping 4 to 5 months in fine condition; stem length medium, moderately stout, usually curved, set in a shallow depression; ships extremely well; matures about 30 days after Bartlett. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; good, consistent bearer; highly susceptible to fire blight; susceptible to stony-pit virus. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

 

Potomac-
Superior resistance to fire blight with fruit of good quality

'Precoce de Trevoux'-
Obtained by M. Treyve of Trevoux, Ain, France and first published in 1862. Fruit medium in size, pyriform often somewhat trunicated in shape. Skin delicate, deep yellow in color, dotted with green, often streaked or blushed. Flesh fine, juicy, melting. Perfumed, sweet, rich flavor. Short-lived in the ripe stage. Normally matures ahead of Bartlett. Tree of medium vigor, fairly productive. Moderately susceptible to blight. -- H. Hartman, 1957..

'Premices de Maria Lesueur'-
A small, unattractive, roundish pear with green color and heavy overlay of russet. Flesh fairly fine but gritty at the center, melting, and very juicy. Sweet vinous flavor similar to that of Louis Pasteur. Rates rather high in dessert quality. Late keeper, inclined to wilt in storage. Tree reasonably vigorous, good foliage, fairly productive, true dwarf on quince. Moderately susceptible to blight. Synonym listed by Ragan: Maria Lesueur. -- H. Hartman, 1957.

Progres –
Beurre Giffard x Green Magdelene. Cross made in 1956. Introduced in 1980. Fruit: medium to small - 45g, pyriform. Skin: bright yellow. Flesh: juicy, sweet, semi-butter, aromatic, good quality, ripens June 20-25. Keeping 4-5 days. Tree: mode rately vigorous, highly frost resistant (spring), resistant to scab.

Red Pear-
A mid season perry pear with low acids and tannins. Origin: A very old English cultivar, grown in the West Midlands, particularly Herfordshire, since before 1600. Fruit: Small, globular to turbinate, 39-49 mm. long, 42-51 mm. diam.; stem short and stout, 14-19 mm., often swollen where attached to the fruit; small, narrow stem basin; slight calyx basin. Skin greenish-yellow, almost completely covered with red; slight russet at stem and calyx ends; lenticels numerous, large. Flesh yellow, firm, dry, with a small number of prominent stone cells around core. Ripens mid October in England s West Midlands, mid September in western Oregon. Tree: Mature tree is medium size, with few main leaders and wide crotch angles; very adaptable, growing well in diverse locations; very precocious, heavy producer but tends toward biennial bearing; late flowering; some fruit scab. Perry: Fruit milled up to 3 weeks after harvest; juice acidity 0.29, tannins 0.09, specific gravity 1.055; produces a low acid, low tannin vintage of average quality. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Reliance'-
 Grown from seed in 1857 and introduced to the Georgia Horticultural Society by P.J. Berkmans in 1890. A small, apple-shaped pear, greenish-yellow in color, usually blushed, often blemished. Similar to Seckel in texture and approaching it in dessert q uality. Susceptible to core breakdown if left too long on the tree. Somewhat earlier than Seckel in season. Generally inferior to Seckel as a variety. Tree vigorous, productive, moderately susceptible to blight.

Rosee de Juillet- Listed in the 1912 catalog of Pepinieres Andre Leroy, Angers, France. Also in Proceedings of A.P.S. 1930. A very early pear of fine dessert quality. Below medium in size, bell-shaped with slender neck, deep yellow in color. Tree fairly vigorous, spreading in habit, inclined toward biennial bearing. Moderately susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman 1957.

Rousselet de Rheims-
An ancient variety believed by some European authorities to date back to the beginning of the Christian era. It is definitely known that the variety has been grown in the vacinity of Rheims, France, for several centuries. It is said to have been the favorite pear of King Louis XIV. Fruit small in size, roundish-turbinate in form, somewhat irregular. Skin greenish-yellow in color, blushed with dull red on sunny side, sprinkled with gray russet dots. Flesh white, semi-fine, buttery but not melting, moderately juicy. Extremely sweet, aromatic, spicy flavor. Almost equal to Seckel in dessert quality. A little later than Bartlett in season. Susceptible to core breakdown. Tree very vigorous, spreading and willowy in habit, almost standard tree on quince, productive. Moderately susceptible to blight. -- H. Hartman, 1957.

Rheims. Originally from Rheims, France. Synonyms: Autumn Catherine, Green Catharine, Late Catherine, Musk Spice, Petit Rousselet, Rousselet, Rousselet de Rheims, Rousselet Musque, Rousselet of Rheims, Rousselet Petit, Rousselet Spice (of some), Rousselette de Rheims, Spice, Spice or Musk Pear. -- W.H. Ragan, Nomenclature of the Pear, 1908.

Rousselet de Rheims (of Duhamel, 1768; Robert Thompson, 1842). Rousselet. Petit Rousselet (of Louis Noisette, 1839), Spice or Musk Pear. This nice French pear, originally from Rheims, is supposed to have been the parent of our Seckel. There is a pretty strong resemblance in the colour, form, and flavour of the two fruits, but the Seckel is much the most delicious. The growth is quite different, and this pear has remarkably long and thrifty dark brown shoots. It is sugary, and with a peculiarly aromatic, spicy flavour, and if it were only buttery, would be a first rate fruit. Fruit below medium size, obovate, inclining to pyriform. Skin yellowish-green on the shady side, but nearly covered with brownish red, with russetty specks. Stalk rather more than an inch long, curved, and inserted without depression. Calyx spreading, set even with the fruit. Flesh breaking or half buttery, with a sweet, rich, aromatic flavour. Ripe at the beginning of September. -- A.J. Downing, The fruits and fruit trees of America, 1846.

Green Catharine, or Rousselet. Is a fine sprightly pear - very pleasant as an eating fruit, and excellent for baking; it is a great and constant bearer - the size is rather small; the form very irregular; the blossom end round, diminishing towards the stem; the skin of a greenish yellow, with a russet brown cheek, scattered over with spots of a feuille morte colour - the flesh is firm and breaking, of a coarse grain - it ripens in August, and continues a long time - the tree grows somewhat like the early Catharine and is very hardy. -- W. Coxe, A view of the cultivation of fruit trees, 1817.

'Rotkottig frau Ostergotland'-
red fleshed variety

'Saint Andre'- Origin obscure. First observed by Leroy in 1829. Received in the United States by Robert Manning in 1834 or 1835. Fruit small to medium in size, generally ovate in form but quite irregular. Skin greenish-yellow in color, waxy, some green or gray dots. Flesh fine, melting, quite free of grit, very juicy. Sweet, aromatic, highly pleasing flavor. Midseason. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading in habit, very productive, true dwarf on quince. Somewhat resistant to fire blight. -- H. Hartman 1957

Seldon- Full description and color plate in Hedrick (1921). Developed from a seed grown by Major Sheldon, Huron, New York. Added to the APS catalog list in 1856. Fruit medium or larger in size, roundish, slightly turbinate and truncated at the base. Skin thick, somewhat granular, tender, dull yellowish-green in color, overspread with light russet, sometimes blushed, numerous dots, not particularly attractive. Flesh white, slightly granular, buttery or melting, very juicy. Sweet, aromatic, vinous flavor, rates among the best in dessert quality. Midseason. Tree sturdy, vigorous, upright grower, moderately productive. Fairly susceptible to fireblight. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Agr. Experiment Station, 1957.

One of my favorites for the home garden. With Sheldon, the pears may be picked when they first start to fall. This pear has a green skin thickly covered with fine russet dots turning a fawn gold when fully ripe. Medium to large in size, the shape is beautifully uniform and symmetrical like that of a large truncated top with a thick stem. The flesh is white, very juicy, melting, sweet, with a delicious, delicately spicy flavor. As Hedrick truly said, 'The flesh is melting and juicy, and deserves more than that of almost any other pear, the adjective luscious.' They are ready for eating as soon as the flesh yields to firm pressure. -- Robert Nitschke, Southmeadow Fruit Gardens Catalog, 1976.

Sheldon. Origin New York. Medium or large, roundish, obtuse obovate; skin greenish yellow, covered with thin russet, a little brownish crimson with russet dots on exposed side; stalk short, stout; cavity deep; calyx open. Flesh whitish, sweet, very juicy, melting, vinous, texture rather coarse; very good; October. Tree vigorous; it requires double working

on quince. (Description from Brackett. 'The Pear and How to Grow It', USDA Farmers' Bulletin 482.) -- Pear Growing in California, Weldon, 1918.

Sierra-
Originated in Summerland, B.C., Canada, by Canada Dept. of Agr. Introduced in 1969. Bartlett x Marguerite Marillat. Cross made in 1947, selected in 1956, tested as 9R-1-13. Fruit: large; long, pyriform; skin smooth, thin, very tender, easily develops russeting from bruises or frost; green when picked, yellowish green when ripe; flesh very fine and smooth, very sweet, juicy, excellent quality; ripens with Anjou, or third week of September, keeps in good condition at 31F until February. Tree: large; irregular shape, spreading; vigorous; hardier than Bartlett; very productive; recommended for home gardens or commercial plantings, requiring the best care in growing and handling of fruit. --Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties
The Sierra pear, a new introduction from the Summerland Station, has been named because of its high performance with respect to fruit quality, bearing habits and cold hardiness. Sierra originated from the cross, Bartlett x Marguerite Marillat, made in 1947 by A.J. Mann. The seedling was selected in 1956 as 9R-1-13 by K.O. Lapins, and named in 1969. Tree: Sierra is a fairly vigorous tree with initially upright, then spreading and even drooping branches. The tree comes into fruiting early, and bears fairly regular and heavy crops. The framework and fruit spurs are hardy, considerably more so than those of Bartlett, and slightly hardier than Anjou. Following both the winter of 1964-65 and 1968-69, Sierra in some plantings, was the only one of the three varieties bearing fruit. At Summerland, the blossoming time of the above three varieties overlaps, and the varieties are capable of interfertilization. Sierra requires fairly heavy pruning to avoid development of long and drooping branches. Normally the fruit set is heavy; thus early and careful fruit thinning is necessary. Fruit: In well grown trees and regulated crops, the fruit of Sierra is large to very large. The shape is long-pyriform and fairly symmetrical. The skin is thin, smooth, green at picking, and turning yellow-green when fruit is eating ripe. Injury to skin by spring frosts or limb rubs at early stages of fruit development may result in russetted spots. Because the skin is tender, the fruit requires very careful handling at harvest and in packing. The flesh is juicy, very fine, smooth, with no or very few grit cells. The flavor is sweet and outstanding in quality. In texture and flavor, Sierra has always been rated much superior to any other variety grown at Summerland. Sierra is picked in the third week of September at Summerland, coinciding with Anjou. It can be ripened to good condition soon after picking, and it keeps at 31 F until February. To reduce shrivel of skin, polyethylene liners are necessary in storage boxes. The fruit of Sierra produces a good canned product with mild flavor. Sierra is recommended mainly for home gardens, to those who appreciate outstanding fruit quality. Because of the long shape and tender skin, the fruit of Sierra may not be suitable for ordinary commercial packing-house handling. --K.O. Lapins. 1970. Fruit Varieties & Horticultural Digest 24(1):2.

 

Summer Crisp-
Fire blight resistant.

Taynton Squash-
An early season perry pear with medium acids and tannins. Origin: A very old English cultivar grown in the West Midlands since before 1700. The cultivar name is presumably derived from Taynton, its parish of origin. In his1811 Pomona Herefordiensis Thomas Andrew Knight wrote of this pear, already considered an old cultivar at that time, that during a favourable season and when well managed it affords a much finer liquor than any other pear. Fruit: Small, oblat or turbinate, 39-45 mm. long, 46-52 mm.; stem slender, 20-27 mm., often fleshy where attached to the fruit; almost no stem basin; calyx basin wide and shallow; calyx open or upright, rarely reflexed. Skin dull greenish yellow, with a brownish-red blush; slight russet at stem end and calyx end; lenticels numerous, small but conspicuous. Flesh white, briskly sweet, with stone cells around core. Ripens mid-late September in England s West Midlands, mid September in western Oregon; does not stor well. Tree: Mature tree is medium to large with narrow crotch angles, twiggy; very productive but usually biennial bearing; early flowering; fruit scab often severe. Perry: Fruit milled within two days of harvest; juice acidity 0.45, tannins 0.13, specific gravity 1.058; higher concentration of citric acid than most other perry pears (>.3%); produces an average quality vintage with medium acid and tannin; compared to champagne in older writings. -- Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

Taunton Squash. The fruit of highest estimation in England for perry; it is an early pear, remarkable for the tenderness of its flesh - if it drops ripe from the tree it bursts from the fall, whence probably its name - the liquor made from it, is pale, sweet, remarkably clear and of strong body; it bears a price fourfold of other perry. -- W. Coxe, A view of the cultivation of fruit trees, 1817.

Thorn-
An early-mid season perry pear with medium acids and low tannins. Origin: A very old English cultivar grown since the 1600s. Fruit: Small, pyriform, occasionally turbinate, 42-64 mm. long, 40-54 mm. diam.; stem short, 11-25 mm.;no stem basin; wide, shallow calyx basin; calyx stiffly upright. Skin yellow, russetted at stem and calyx ends; lenticels numerous but inconspicuous. Flesh with few stone cells around core. Ripens mid-late September in England s West Midlands, earlySeptember in western Oregon. Tree: Small, upright and compact with conspicuous spurs; very productive, but very slow to come into bearing; fruit scab often present. Perry: Fruit milled within one week of harvest; juice acidity 0.57, tannins 0.10, specific gravity 1.062; produces a good quality vintage with low tannins. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties Thorns trees are scattered throughout England's perry growing districts; particularly common in northwest Gloucestershire. Was once widely planted for dessert and culinary purposes for which it is now considered too astringent. Popular on account of its compact habit and heavy cropping. The resulting perry, which is medium acid, low-tannin, can be of very good quality.

Thornley- This pear was entered in the Station records under the name Thornley for the reason that it was found as a chance seedling on the property of J. Thornley of Medford, Oregon. The name has not been officially registered. Fruit resembles that of P. Barry in shape and coloration but appears a little smaller in size. Flesh yellowish-green in color, very fine, juicy, melting, quite free of grit. Very sweet, rich, and spicy in flavor. Rates among the best in dessert quality. Probably too small in size and too unattractive in appearance to warrant recognition as a commercial variety. Tree of medium vigor, spreading in habit, moderately susceptible to fire blight. -- H. Hartman 1957.

Tyson- Tyson competes with Clapp Favorite as the precursor of the pear season which is really opened by Bartlett. In every character of fruit and tree excepting size and color of fruit, Tyson excels Clapp Favorite. The quality of the fruit far excels that of Clapp Favorite and is better than that of Bartlett. Indeed, of commonly grown pears, the characters of flesh and flavor are second only to those of the fruits of Seckel. The flesh is melting and juicy, with a spicy, scented sweetness that gives the fruit the charm of individuality. The pears keep longer and ship better than those of Clapp Favorite; their season in New York is from the middle of August to the middle of September. Unfortunately, the pears are but medium in size, and are often poorly colored, both of which defects appear on the fruits of this variety as grown on the grounds of this Station and shown in the accomanying illustration.

The tree is the most nearly perfect of that of any pear grown in America-the Kieffer, praiseworthy only in its tree, not excepted. The tree is certainly as hardy as that of any other variety, if not hardier, and resists better than that of any other sort the black scourge of blight. Add to these notable characters large size, great vigor, and fruitfulness, and it is seen that the trees are nearly flawless. The only fault is, and this is a comparatively trifling one, that the trees are slow in coming in bearing. Tyson is the best pear of its season for the home orchard, and has much merit for commercial orchards. Were the fruits larger, it would rival Bartlett for the markets. No other variety offers so many good starting points for the pear-breeder.

Tyson originated as a wilding found about 1794 in a hedge on the land of Jonathan Tyson, Jenkintown, Penn. The tree first bore fruit in 1800. The pears proved to be so good that Mr. Tyson distributed cions among his neighbors, but the variety was not generally disseminated. About 1837, a Doctor Mease of Philadelphia sent cions to B. V. French, Braintree, near Boston, who in turn distributed them among his friends. The variety fruited here about 1842, and the fruit was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society under the name Tyson. In 1848, at the National Convention of Fruit Growers, Tyson was recommended for general cultivation, and since that date the name has appeared continuously in the catalogs of the American Pomological Society.

Tree very large, vigorous, upright-spreading, tall, dense-topped, hardy, productive; trunk very stocky, rough; branches thick, dull reddish-brown, overspread with gray scarf-skin, with few lenticels; branchlets slender, short, light brown mingled with green, smooth, glabrous, sprinkled with few small, inconspicuous lenticels. Leaf-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, appressed or free. Leaves 22, in. long, 11 in. wide, thin; apex abruptly pointed; margin finely and shallowly serrate; petiole 5, in. long. Flower-buds small, short, conical, pointed, plump, free, singly on short spurs; flowers medium in season of bloom. Fruit matures in late August; medium in size, 2 .1 in. long, 1 in. wide, roundish-acute-pyriform, with unequal sides; stem 13 in. long, curved; cavity very shallow, obtuse, round, usually drawing up as a lip about the base of the stem; calyx open, small, lobes separated at the base, short, narrow, acute; basin shallow, narrow, flaring, slightly furrowed, compressed; skin tough, smooth, slightly russeted, dull; color deep yellow, usually blushed; dots numerous, very small, obscure; flesh tinged with yellow, granular around the basin, otherwise rather fine-grained, tender and melting, very juicy, sweet, aromatic; quality very good. Core small, closed, with clasping core-lines; calyx-tube, short, wide, conical, seeds medium in size and width, plump, acute. The flesh is melting and Juicy, with a spicy, scented sweetness that gives the fruit the charm of individuality. -- U.P. Hedrick, The Pears of New York, 1921.

Waite-
Originated in Arlington, Va., by M.B. Waite, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Introduced in 1938. Parentage unknown; selected about 1920; tested as USDA 66131. Fruit: almost as large as Bartlett, resembling it in shape; flesh smooth, almost free of grit cells, more acid than Bartlett; apparently lacks quality; good for cooking and canning, fairly good for dessert; ripens about Kieffer time. Tree: good fire blight resistance; growth rather weak; not very productive; crosspollination essential. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties.

PI 66131 - Received from Arlington Experiment Farm, Rosslyn, Virginia. A hybrid seedling pear originated by M.B. Waite, Bureau of Plant Industry, at the Arlingto farm. Numbered February, 1926, for convenience in distribution. Kieffer Cross 38-12. (A cross made several years ago between Kieffer and a European variety of unknown parentage.) Tree moderately vigorous, erect to spreading. Fruit pyriform, 3 to 4 inches long by 2 to 2 3/4 inches wide, yellow, fairly smooth, with numerous small gray or yellowish lenticels. Flesh white, tender, not quite so buttery in texture as Bartlett, but with few stone cells. Rather hightly flavored, mildly acid, apparently well suited to cooking and canning purposes as well as for dessert use. Appears to possess good handling and keeping qualities, not breaking down at the core. -- USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Plant Inventory No. 86, 1928.

 

Warren-
 (seems like a good easy household pear) (PI 541448).-Originated at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, by T.O. Warren as chance seedling. Introduced in 1976. Fruit: medium to large; shape variable; skin dull brown, sometimes with red blush, smooth; flesh whitish, buttery, smooth, moderately firm; flavor said to be comparable to Magness or Comice; ripens about with Magness; stores much better than Bartlett. Tree: vigorous; pyramidal, with flat crotch angles; cold hardy; tolerant of high summer temperatures; resistant, but not immune, to fire blight; disease free foliage. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Winnal s Longdon-
A mid season scab-resistant perry pear with high acids and low tannins. Origin: Raised by Mr. Winnall of Woodfield, England, in the parish of Weston-under-Penyard about 1790. Fruit: Small, pyriform, 51-62 mm. long, 38-50 mm. diam.; stem 13-25 mm; no stem basin, slight calyx basin; calyx reflexed. Skin greenish-yellow, with considerable red blush; slight russet at stem end, more at calyx end; lenticels small, numerous and conspicuous. Flesh has small stone cells around core. Ripens in early October in England s West Midlands. Tree: Mature tree is medium to large; very productive but tends toward biennial bearing; slow to come into bearing; one of the few English perry pears compatible with quince rootstock; relatively free of fruit scab. Perry: Fruit milled within one week of harvest; juice acidity 0.57, tannins 0.11, specific gravity 1.058; produces a good quality vintage with moderate acids and low tannins. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Winter Nelis-
Although generally listed by American and British authors as Winter Nelis, the name of this variety has been much confused in continental Europe. Leroy (1867) describes it under Bonne de Malines, the name assigned by its originator. It was introduced into England under the name of La Bonne Melinois. At a later date, the name Bonne de Malines or La Bonne Melinois was cancelled and Nelis d'Hiver was substituted at the suggestion of Van Mons. From this name came the English equivalent, 'Winter Nelis'. Full description and color plate in Hedrick (1921).
Raised from seed by Jean Charles Nelis, Mechlin, Belgium, early in the nineteenth century. Brought to the Unites States from England in 1823. Fruit small to medium in size, roundish-obovate to obtuse-obovate-pyriform. Skin fairly thick, but tender, roughened with considerable russeting, dull green or yellowish in color, not attractive. Flesh fairly fine except for grit at the center, buttery, moderately juicy. Spicy, rich flavor, rates very high in dessert quality. Late keeper. Tree fairly vigorous, willowy and spreading in habit, reasonably productive, moderately susceptible to fire blight. Winter Nelis is rapidly losing ground as a commercial variety because of its small size, unattractive appearance, and a tendency to decay in storage. -- H. Hartman, Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 1957.

 

Yellow Huffcap-
A mid season perry pear with high acids and low tannins. Origin: Traditional old English cultivar. The Huffcaps are a related group of cultivars with a distinct elliptical shape, protruding calyx end, and capacity forproducing a strong perry. The Yellow Huffcap may be the original Huffcap pear from which the others were derived. The name Huffcap may have come from a potent ale that could lift one s cap , or possibly from an alternate spelling Huffcup referring to lifting your cup when making a toast. Fruit: Small, elliptical, 41-51 mm long, 35-45 mm. diam.; stem thick and swollen at both ends, 14-22 mm.; stem basin small or none; calyx basin narrow; calyx upright. Skin green or dark yellow with no blush, russetted around stem and calyx; covered with large, corky lenticels. Flesh slightly yellow-green with few stone cells. Ripens mid-October in England s West Midlands, mid September in western Oregon; must be shaken before ripe to prevent rottingon the tree. Tree: Mature tree is large with large spreading limbs. Very productive, but biennial bearing, slow to come into bearing; early flowering. Perry: Fruit milled within one week of harvest; juice acidity 0.62, tannins 0.10, specific gravity1.064; contains a higher concentration of citric acid than most other perry pears (>.3%); produces a consistently good to excellent full flavoured vintage with moderate acids and low tannins. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties

Zaharoasa de Vara-
 (Para de Zahar or De Zahar in Romania, Sakarnaia in Russia) (PI 352661).-A small, early ripening pear from Romania. Introduced by L.F. Hough to U.S. in 1970 (PI 352661). Originated possibly in Ukraine. Name refers to the sweet earlyseason fruit (zahar = sugar, vara = summer), apparently identical to Arganche from Macedonia, and Mustafabey from Turkey. Arganche (PI 264694): A small, early ripening pear from Macedonia. Introduced to U.S. from Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1960. Fruit: small (about 50 g) like Seckel, pyriform, skin yellow with red blush and no russet; flesh fine-textured, sweet, juicy, firm; ripe early, about 16 July in western Oregon. Tree: naturally compact due to relatively short internodes, abundant fruiting spurs, consistently productive, resistant to scab. - Brooks and Olmo Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties